Rock and roll摇滚乐
Pop Art 波普艺术;流行艺术
Oil painting 油画;油画艺术
Charcoal drawing 素描
Landscape painting 风景画,山水画
In our lab today, we'll be testing the hypothesis that babies can count as early as five months of age.
The six babies here are all less than six months old。
You'll be watching them on closed-circuit TV and measuring their responses。
The experiment is based on the well-established observation that babies stare longer if they don't see what they expect to see.
First, we're going to let two dolls move slowly in front of the babies.
The babies will see the two dolls disappear behind a screen.
Your job is to record, in seconds, how long the babies stare at the dolls when the screen is removed.
In the next stage, two dolls will again move in front of the babies and disappear.
But then a third doll will follow.
When the screen is removed, the babies will only see two dolls。
If we're right, the babies will now stare longer because they expect three dolls but only see two.
It seems remarkable to think that such young children can count.
My own research has convinced me that they have this ability from birth。
But whether they do or not, perhaps we should raise another question。
Should we take advantage of this ability by teaching children mathematics at such a young age?
They have great untapped potential, but is it good for parents to pressure young children?
Before starting our tour of Monticello, I'd like to give you some historical facts that might help you appreciate what you see today even more.
Monticello was the very much loved home of Thomas Jefferson for over fifty years。
Jefferson, who was, of course, President, was also a great reader and language enthusiast.
He read widely on different subjects, including architecture.
He wasn't formally trained in architecture, but as a result of his study and observation of other buildings, he was able to help design and build the house.
He chose the site himself, naming the estate "Monticello," which means "little mountain" in Italian.
In fact, many of the ideas behind the design also came from the Italian architect Andrea Palladio, who lived in the sixteenth century and who had a great influence on the architecture of England。
Jefferson, however, ignored one of Palladio's principles, that is, not to build in a high place。
Monticello's elevation made the transportation of what was needed at the house—for example, food—especially difficult.
But the view from the estate would not be as spectacular if Jefferson had followed Palladio's advice;
there really is no boundary between the house and the nature around it, and so Jefferson was able to look out on his beloved state of Virginia from his wonderful vantage point.
Now we'll go on to Jefferson's library.